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The Banda Islands Indonesian: The main town and administrative centre is Bandanairalocated on the island of the same name. They rise out of 4-tokilometre 2. They had a population of 18, at the Census. The islands are also popular destinations for scuba diving and snorkeling.
The first documented human presence in the Banda Islands comes from a rockshelter site on Pulau Ay that was in use at least 8, years ago. Before the arrival of Europeans, Banda had an oligarchic banda neira rindu games of government led by orang kaya 'rich men' and the Bandanese had an active and independent role in trade throughout the archipelago.
They were sold by Arab traders to banda neira rindu games Venetians for exorbitant prices. The traders did not divulge the exact location of their source and no European was able to deduce their location. On his first visit, banda neira rindu games interviewed the Portuguese and the far more knowledgeable Malay sailors in Malacca. He estimated the early banda neira rindu games century population to be — He reported the Bandanese as being part of an Indonesia-wide trading network and the only native Malukan long-range traders taking cargo to Malacca, although shipments from Banda were also being made by Javanese traders.
In exchange, Banda predominantly received rice and cloth; namely light cotton batik from Javacalicoes from India and ikat from the Lesser Sundas. Inan average quality sarong -sized cloth traded for eighteen kilograms of nutmeg. Some of these textiles were then on-sold, ending up in Halmahera and New Guinea.
In August on behalf of the king of PortugalAfonso de Albuquerque conquered Malaccawhich at the time was the hub of Asian trade. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Javathe Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early Five of the Banda islands were within gunshot of each other and he realised that a fort on the main island Neira would give him full control of the group.
The Bandanese were, however, hostile to such a plan, and their warlike antics were both costly and tiresome to Garcia whose men were attacked when they attempted to build a fort. From then on, the Portuguese were infrequent visitors banda neira rindu games the islands preferring banda neira rindu games buy their nutmeg from traders in Malacca. Unlike other eastern Indonesian islands, such as AmbonSolorTernate and Morotaithe Bandanese displayed no enthusiasm for Christianity or the Banda neira rindu games who brought it in the sixteenth century, and no serious attempt was made to Christianise the Bandanese.
Ironically though, it was this lack of ports which brought the Dutch to trade at Banda instead of the clove islands of Ternate and Tidore.
The Dutch followed the Portuguese to Banda but were to have a much more dominating and lasting presence. For the Bandanese, on the other hand, although they welcomed another competitor purchaser for their spices, the items of trade offered by the Dutch—heavy woolens, and damasks, unwanted manufactured goods, for example—were usually unsuitable in comparison to traditional trade products.
The JavaneseArab and Indianand Portuguese traders for example brought indispensable items along with steel knives, copper, medicines forest hd for android prized Chinese porcelain. As much as the Dutch disliked dealing with the Bandanese, the trade was a highly profitable one with spices selling for times the purchase price in Banda.
This amply justified the expense and risk in shipping them to Europe. The allure of such profits saw an increasing number of Dutch expeditions; it was soon seen that in trade with the East Indies, competition from each would eat into all their profits. Until the early seventeenth century the Bandas were ruled by a group of leading citizens, the orang kaya literally 'rich men' ; each of these was head of a district.
At the time nutmeg was one of the "fine spices" kept expensive in Europe by disciplined manipulation of the market, but a desirable commodity for Dutch traders in the ports of India as well; economic historian Fernand Braudel notes that India consumed twice as much as Europe. Even though the Bandanese had little understanding of the significance of the treaty known as 'The Eternal Compact', or that not all Bandanese leaders had signed, it would later be used to justify Dutch troops being brought in to defend banda neira rindu games monopoly.
In AprilAdmiral Pieter Willemsz. The Bandanese were not excited about this idea. On May 22, before building of the fort had started, the orang kaya called a meeting with the Dutch admiral, purportedly to negotiate prices. Instead, they led Verhoeff and two high-ranked men into an ambush and decapitated them and subsequently killed 46 of the Dutch visitors. Jan Pietersz Coenwho was a lower-ranked merchant banda neira rindu games the expedition, managed to escape, but the traumatic event likely influenced his future attitude towards the Bandanese.
While Portuguese and Spanish activity in the region had weakened, the English had built fortified trading posts on tiny Ai and Run islands, ten to twenty kilometres from the main Banda Islands.
With the English paying higher prices, they were significantly undermining Dutch aims for a monopoly. Inthe Dutch invaded Ai with men whereupon the English retreated to Run where they regrouped. Japanese mercenaries served in the Dutch forces. A year later, a much stronger Dutch force attacked Ai. This time the defenders were able to hold off the attack with cannon fire, but after a month of siege they ran out of ammunition.
The Dutch slaughtered the defenders, and afterwards strengthened the fort, renaming it 'Fort Revenge'. In well-armed soldiers were landed on Bandaneira Island and within a few days they had also occupied neighbouring and vuurmuur ubuntu Lontar.
The orang kaya were forced at gunpoint to sign an unfeasibly arduous treaty, one that was in fact impossible to keep, banda neira rindu games providing Coen an excuse to use superior Dutch force against the Bandanese.
Japanese mercenaries were hired to deal with the orang kaya     forty of whom were beheaded with their heads impaled and displayed on bamboo spears. The islanders were also tortured by the Dutch.
The Dutch carved 68 parcels out of the islands after the enslavement and slaughter of the natives. The population of the Banda Islands prior to Dutch conquest is generally estimated to have been around 13,—15, people, some of whom were Malay and Javanese traders, as well as Banda neira rindu games and Arabs. The actual numbers of Bandanese who were killed, forcibly expelled or fled the islands in remain uncertain. But readings of historical sources suggest around one thousand Bandanese likely survived in the islands, and were spread throughout the nutmeg groves as forced labourers.
Most survivors fled banda neira rindu games refugees to the islands of their trading partners, in particular Keffing and Guli Guli in the Seram Laut chain and Kei Besar. Some of these individuals were later returned to the islands because of their much-needed expertise in nutmeg cultivation something sorely lacking among newly arrived Dutch settlers.
Whereas up until this point the Dutch presence had been simply as traders, that was sometimes treaty-based, the Banda conquest marked the start of the first overt colonial rule in Indonesia, albeit under the auspices of banda neira rindu games VOC. Having nearly eradicated the islands' native population, Coen divided the productive land of approximately half a million nutmeg trees into sixty-eight 1.
These land parcels were then handed to Dutch planters known as perkeniers of banda neira rindu games 34 were on Lontar31 on Ai and 3 on Neira. With few Bandanese left to work them, slaves from elsewhere were brought in.
The outlying island of Run was harder for the VOC to control and they exterminated all nutmeg trees there. The production and export of nutmeg was a VOC monopoly for almost two hundred years. Though not physically present at the Banda Islands, the English claimed the small island of Run until when, under the Treaty of Bredathe Dutch and English agreed to maintain the colonial status quo and relinquish their respective claims.
Inthe Kingdom of Holland was a vassal of Napoleonic France and hence in conflict with Britain. The French and British were each seeking to control lucrative Indian Ocean trade routes. The frigates and sloop carried a hundred officers and men of the Madras European Regimentwhile the Mandarin carried supplies. The squadron took a circuitous route to avoid alerting the Dutch.
On 9 Augustthe British appeared at Banda Neira. They quickly stormed the island and attacked Belgica Castle at sunrise. The battle was over within hours, with the Dutch surrendering Fort Nassau — after some subterfuge — and within days the remainder of the Banda Islands.
This action was a prelude to Britain's invasion of Java in Before the Dutch retook control of the islands, the British removed many nutmeg trees and transplanted them to Ceylon and other British banda neira rindu games. The competition largely destroyed the value of the Banda Islands to the Dutch. In the late s, violence between Christians and Muslims and between indigenous locals and transmigrants spilled over from intercommunal conflict in Ambon.
The disturbance and resulting deaths damaged the previously prosperous tourism industry. The islands are part of the Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests ecoregion. Most of the present-day inhabitants of the Banda Islands are descended from migrants and plantation labourers from banda neira rindu games parts of Indonesia, as well as from indigenous Bandanese. They have inherited aspects of pre-colonial ritual practices in the Bandas that are highly valued and still performed, giving them a distinct and very local cultural identity.
In addition, Bandanese speak a distinct dialect indoor growers bible Malay language which has several features distinguishing it from Ambonese Malaythe better-known and more widespread dialect that forms a lingua franca in central and southeast Maluku. Bandanese Malay is famous in the region for its unique, lilting accent, but it also has a number of locally identifying words in its lexicon, many of them borrowings or loanwords from Dutch.
Banda Malay shares many Portuguese loanwords with Ambonese Malay not appearing in the national language, Indonesian. But it has comparatively fewer, and they differ in pronunciation.
Finally, and most noticeably, Banda Malay uses some distinct pronouns. The most immediately distinguishing is that of the second person singular familiar form of address: The descendants of some of the Bandanese who fled Dutch conquest in the seventeenth banda neira rindu games live in the Kai Islands Kepulauan Kei to the east of the Banda group, where a version of the original Banda language is still spoken in the villages of Banda Eli and Banda Elat on Kai Besar Island.
While long integrated into Kei Island society, residents of these settlements continue to value the historical origins of their ancestors. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Governorate of the Banda Islands. Dutch conquest of the Banda Islands. Indonesia portal. Antike Welt. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. Nathaniel's Nutmeg. BBC News.
Mergers, Acquisitions and Global Empires: The Taste of Conquest: Random House Publishing Group. The Kyun bekhudi si chahi hai mp3 of a Temptation. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century: The Golden Age.